Showing posts with label Choicet Essay. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Choicet Essay. Show all posts

Monday, December 19, 2016


ISRO’s latest satellite. INSAT-4A communication satellite, was successfully launched on December 22,2005 by the European Ariane-5 G launched vehicle of Arianespace, with 12 high power kuband transponders. INSAT-4A is the first satellite to meet the requirement of Direct-to-Home (DTH) television service apart from carrying 12 C-band transponders to augment the INSAT capacity for communication and TV services. Weighing 3080 kg at lift-off, INSAT-4A is the heaviest satellite of ISRO so far.
The 169th flight of Araine (Ariane 5G) with ISRO’s 3080 kg INSAT-4A and the co-passenger, meteorological satellite, MSG-2 of the European EUMENTAST, lifted off at 4:8 am Indian Standard Time (IST) form Kourou, French Guyana About 30 minutes after lift-off, INSAT-4A was placed in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) in 3-axis stabilized mode. INSAT-4A is now orbiting the earth with perigee (nearest point to earth) of 622 km and an apogee (farthest point to earth) of 36152 km and an inclination of 4.02 deg with respect to the equator. The orbital period is about 10 hours 46 minutes.

Successful Launch
The Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka acquired the firs signal from INSAT-4A. The initial checks on the satellite indicated normal health of the satellite. MCF subsequently issued commands to the satellite to make the earth-viewing face to orient towards earth. The calibration of the gyros on board the satellite was also carried out. INSAT-4A is being tracked, monitored and controlled from MCF. During the initial phase of INSAT-4A operations, MCF also utilizes INMARSAT Organization’s Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TTC) ground stations at Beijing (China), Fucino (Italy) and Lake Cowichan (Canada). The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (15 TRAC) ground station at Biak in Indonesia is also monitoring the satellite. The satellite’s orbit is being precisely monitoring the satellite. The Satellite’s orbit is being precisely determined by continuous ranging from the participating ground determined by continuous ranging from the participating ground stations. INSAT-4A has maneuvered to its final geostationary orbit, which is about 26,000 km. above the equator, by firing its 440 Newton Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM). When the satellite reaches near geosynchronous orbit, deployment of its solar panels and the two antennas will be carried out and the satellite put in its final –axis established mode. This will be followed by trim maneuvers to take satellite to its designated orbital slot. INSAT-4A positioned at 83 degree East longitude along with INSAT-2E and INSAT-3B.
INSAT-4A measures 15-16 meter when its solar arrays are fully deployed in orbit. The spacecraft propulsion system employs a 440 N Liquid Apogee Motor with 1500 kg of MON-3 (Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) and MMH (Mono Methyl Hydrazine) to take the satellite from GTO and its final geosynchronous orbit. The satellite will be 3-axis body stabilized in orbit using sensors, momentum and reaction wheels, magnetic torques and eight 10 Newton and eight 22 Newton Reaction Control Thrusters. The satellite has two solar arrays together generating 5,550 watt of electrical power backed up by three 70 Ah Nickel Hydrogen Batteries. The satellite has two deployable antennas and one fixed antenna for various transmit and receive functions.
With ISRO Satellite Centre (SAC), Bangalore, as the lead centre, INSAT-4A was realized with major contributions from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC) at Valiamala and Bangalore, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) and ISRO Inertial System Unit (IISU), Thriuvananthapuram. Besides, several industries in both public and private sectors have contributed to the realization of INSAT-4A. MCF is responsible for initial phase and in-orbit operation of all geostationary satellites of ISRO. 

New Generation of Communication

The launch of the Indian Space Research Origination’s INSAT-4A telecommunications satellite inaugurates a new generation of domestic communication spacecraft. INSAT-4A will be used for Indian domestic governmental a commercial telecommunications. Its 12 Ku-Band transponders have already been sold to direct-broadcast television companies serving India, an illustration of the surgeon demand for satellite television in the subcontinent. The satellite also carried 12 C-bands transponders. It is a demand that several commercial satellite-fleet operators would like to serve. But India has a policy of obliging direct-broadcast satellite television companies to use India satellites unless those satellites are full. The Indian Space Research Organization plans three more INSAT-4 A satellites for launch by the end of 2008.
After the launch, ISRO chairman Madhavan Nair stated that the satellite ”will revolutionize” direct-to-Home (DTH) broadcasting in the country.
He said that launch is a milestone. “India spreads across 3,000 km (1875 miles) and to reach each and every village, satellite technology is the only possible way”. Mr. Nair hailed the spacecraft as the “most advanced, heaviest and powerful satellite” built by ISRO so far.
This is the first satellite in the INST-4 series. Although ISRO have its own launch vehicle, it does not have the technology to launch three-tone satellites. The organization had faced US sanction after India carried but a series of nuclear test in 1998. The sanctions have since been removed on all except three organizations attached to ISRO, which continue to face the restrictions. The 12 transponders on INSAT-4A have already been booked by Tata Sky to provide DTH services in India. Tata Sky proposes to provide 150 channels to its transponders provided by Indian satellites will increase to 150. Apart from Tata Sky, several other Indian players like Anil Ambani’s company and the Sun TV group are waiting for space on INSAT series of satellites to start their DTH service that have been announced earlier. 
The satellite, which has design life of 12 years, itself, cost Rs. 230 crore, while the launch and insurance added up to another Rs.300 crore. The Ariane rocket also put into space MSG-2, a weather satellite for the European Organization Eumestat. ISRO is a long-standing client of Arianespace and used the agency way back in 1981 to launch its experimental satellite Apple. INSAT-4A is the 12th satellite to be launched by Ariane and ISRO plans to use Arianespace to launch INSAT-4B as well.
The launch of the Metosat 9 stellite called MSG-2 before launch for Europe’s meteorological satellite organization, the 18 nation Eumatsat, will give Europe a backup satellites to join its twin, Metosat 8, which is already operational. These two satellites are the first of the four Metosat Second Generation Spacecraft, which provide imagery from 12 spectral channels every 15 minutes. The four Metosat Second Generation Satellites will provide climate and weather data through 2018.The total program is valued at 2 billion euros ($2.86 billion), including the production, launch and operations of the four satellites.
The MSG-2 platform is a spinstabilised spacecraft developed by Alcatel Alenia Space to provide high resolution images of the earth’s weather activity for the European Meteorological Satellite Organisation (EUMETSAT). The 2,084 kg satellite also will measure the planets radiation balance for information on climate change.
Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System
The INSAT series consists of --- INSAT-2E,INSAT 3A,3B,3C,3E, KALAPANA-I, GSAT-2 AND EDUSAT. The system providers over 140 communications transponders working in the C, extended C and K bands besides metrological instruments.
The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite System is the world’s largest constellation of civilian remote sensing satellites providing series at the national and global level. Our forthcoming satellites are OCEANSAT-2,RISAT-1 SERRIES 4B,4D,4E and Scientific Satellites ASTROSTAT and Chandrayan-I.


A technological revolution is taking place in the area of machine tools, inspection devices and handling equipments. This new revolution has been triggered off by electronics and sustained by ever-increasing capabilities of computers. This has led to emergence of a new technology called mechtronics symbolizing the synthesis of mechanical aspects. 
Robotics is the study of the design and use of robots (Czech: ‘robota’ meaning compulsory service), i.e. the machines programmed to carry out a series of operations without human guidance. The word ‘robotics’ was invented by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. 
In the field of robotics, we stand at the bottom. The robots that exits are by no means the seeing, speaking, thinking, humanoid types that we find in science fiction. So far, they are only computerized levers equipped to do a particular simple task over and over, thought the rapidly will be made more complex, versatile and able. The kind of work they can do makes them more important. They can do dangerous work or withstand dangerous conditions, which human beings would much prefer to avoid. Robots can work in space, in mines, use water-active materials, pressures, heights and so on. Besides, replacement of human beings with robots may be impossible. The human brain is not easy to match, let alone surpass. The brain contains 10,000 million neurons and 100,000 million supporting cells. Each neuro is connected to anywhere from 100 to 100,000 others to make up an ON-Off switch, but is itself an ultra complex physical chemical system that we are not even on the brink of understanding. The human brain is built of proteins and nucleic acids as a result of 3500 million years of evolution by hit and miss mutation and by the force of natural selection operating under the push of the necessity of survival.
Industrial application of robots is favored because of their untiring nature, predictability, precision, reliability and ability to work in relatively hostile environment. Besides this, robots frequently increase productivity improve overall product quality, allow replacement of human labor in monotonous and, of course, in hazardous task.
Computer-controlled robots are used in industry for welding. Assembling and machining, and to handle various materials. Non-industrial applications of robots include marine work, space work, bionomics, farm work, mining, nuclear work, security guarding, sheep-shaving, simulation, warehouse, micro-surgery, etc.
Robots for space:--- Computer scientists have designed an intelligent flying robot to carry out a wide range of tasks on Mars, if it is visited by a possible future European Space Agency Mars Lander Mission in 2005. Named Altair-1, the craft has been designed primarily to carry science packages, micro-robots and other equipment from one part of the planet to another. It will also perform important reconnaissance works like mapping the terrain, taking aerial photographs, and working as a weather balloon.
Being a flying machine Altair-1 can only operate on the planets and Moon which have an atmosphere, such as, Mars, Venus, Titan and Jupiter. It attempts to remedy the problems suffered by vehicles such as the Sojourner micro-rover in the Mars pathfinder Mission of 1997, which could not wander further than the limited vicinity of the landing craft.
Altair-1 will run on solar power in conjunction with rechargeable batteries. This would ensure a sustainable power supply to it. But, in the case of power dipping low, the robot can simply be used as a Martian winds while still feeding back invaluable data. Geological exploration in inaccessible areas, high-altitude surveillance and atmospheric monitoring are just some of the potential applications of its capabilities.
Polymorphic Robot:--- Recently, the scientists have developed a polymorphic robot, which can change is shape according to the job. This thermoplastic farmed robot is being developed by Hod Lipson with Jordan Pollack. The basic idea is to assign the robot a particular task, and then a computer would attempt to design a specific body which would facilitate the robot to perform the task efficiently.
This development has immense potential in space research. Robots, with the capacity of shape-shifting, could be used in futuristic rescue missions or planetary explorations as then they could change their shapes to meet a new challenge and could adapt to unpredictable environments.
Robots Soldiers:--- In wartime, the most perilous assignment is to take the lead on patrol but soon soldier taking lead could be robot. A company named ‘Robo Trix’ has developed two robot prototypes for the US military nicknamed Gladiator and Spike, about the size of washing machines. Gladiator and Spike are armored engines guided by computers and can travel unmanned into the most dangerous situation. Earlier, robots handled dangerous situations like bomb disposal, SWAT mission, gas leaks and collapsing mines.
Now likely assignments of robots include surveillance, clearing land mines, responding to chemical weapons release, exchanging messages during hostage negotiations and a Kamikaze role guiding weapons to target.
Robotics in India
In India, a few research groups have been working on development of robots, but a breakthrough is yet to be made in the field of robots for large-scale industrial application. The groups working on robotics include R and D of the Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT), the Central Machine Tools Institute (CMIT), the India Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, the Indian Institute of Science (IIS) Bangalore, and the Hyderabad Science Society, Hyderabad.
The public sector defense production unit, Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was the first Indian industry to introduce an indigenously developed robot in its production line. It introduced ‘pick’ and ‘place’ type robot with a three axis movement in its television tube production plant at Bangalore. The pneumatically-operated the productivity while maintaining quality in the semi automated plant, eliminating operator fatigue and other health hazards.
The robotics laboratory at the school of automation of the Indian Institute of Science (IIS), Bangalore has developed a microprocessor-base robotic arm. The arm has four joints, each of which is actuated by a stepper motor. The robotic arm can be controlled manually form a front panel or automatically through a video terminal and a key-board. The microprocessor has been programmed in such a way that a lay man can control the robotic arm. It can be commanded to pick up an object from a specified location or to search, locate and then grip an object within the work area.

Role Of Mass-Media In Present World Affairs

Means of mass-communication or the media, has assumed large dimensions of importance and responsibility in the modern world affairs. TV, Radio and News-papers play a big role in shaping the public life and improving the awareness of the world affairs among the masses. News-papers have become almost as necessary as the food and clothing. The modern educated man cannot enjoy his morning breakfast unless he has the morning paper before him. But the world moves so fast and events happen so quickly that one cannot wait for the morning paper for fresh news. The TV and the Radio, keep us informed and alive to the current world affairs more promptly. The TV has revolutionized the world of media. It has achieved huge dimensions in the world of news and information. It gets the important events- social, political and sports, live before us, besides the interviews of the important persons related to some current events. The video strips of the events, shown along with the news, make thing very clear to the viewers. Radio is not anyway less important in keeping people informed about the world affairs, especially in the rural areas where the V has not yet been able to replace it totally. Besides the informative character of the media regarding latest developments in the political and social sphere, it caters to the needs of the businessmen, sports-person, cinema fans, lawyers and unemployed youth equally.
The media has gained manifold importance in the recent years and has become a huge industry employing a great number of able journalists, writers, photographers, statesmen, correspondents and a train of film producers, writers, musicians and actors etc. With the popularity of TV and cable-culture, the importance of news-papers and news-journals has not diminished but gained further strides for their distinctive character in the world of media.
It is a world of competition. Business, sports, politics and education, including media are flourishing very fast as a result of sharp competition among the partners. Everyone in the field, be it a news-paper or a TV channel of the state-sponsored radio, is trying hard to give the best information to the masses and gain popularity and thereby make money by the commercial advertisement which sponsor the programs on the TV and radio or through news-papers. The media-men are the most sought after people these days. In the world of diminishing values today, the politicians, businessmen, hoarders and black-marketers, even the people related to the underworld are in permanent scare of the media. They do not know when their evil-doings are brought to the open public notice through media. The media has become quite an effective watch-dog for all the anti-social elements not only in India but throughout the world, so leaders, academicians, teachers, students and lawyers speak up for the people and voice their grievances against the mismanagement of public affairs at various levels. It serves as a link between the government of the day and the people. The government’s policies and actions are conveyed to the people, and the latter’s views are forcefully expressed to make the authorities aware of the public feelings. The opposition leaders get an ample opportunity to criticize the policies of the government and set them right whenever the occasion demands as such.
The media can perform its true role as guardian of the public interest and a source of all kinds of information, only in a democracy, where it enjoys the freedom of expression. Indian media, for that matter, enjoys the freedom of expression and is greatly envied by the people of other countries of Asia where there is military dictatorship, autocratic rule and prolonged spells of emergency during which the fundamental rights of the citizens are blatantly denied. Of course, all journalists and news-papers must functions within law and must not infringe the regulations regarding libel and defamation; otherwise they would make themselves liable to penal action. In spite of the limitations of law, the media has wide field which they can fully cover and exploit.
All news-papers and other forms of mass-media do not, however, play a positive and constructive role expected of them. A section of news-papers in this country, unfortunately, steadily increasing in number, indulge in sub-standard journalism. They distort the truth, fan up the fundamental religious sentiments, exaggerate juicy news-reports and violate all ethical standards. They use their columns for exploiting vulnerable people and do a lot of damage to the public cause. Television, which has a very powerful appeal in audio-visual communication, is not also utilized fully for the gainful purposes. Bedside working successfully in highlighting some social evils of the society through its popular serial plays and other programs, the T.V has gained much notoriety for its showing some obscene programs of fashion shows and dress competitions along with western movies which do not suit the traditional cultural background of this country. The crime, horror and violence included in the programs have encouraged lot of crime and violence in this country. Such use of media for petty personal gains for themselves, is a great betrayal of society and should necessarily be treated the black sheep in the profession.
The media in an advanced society should perform a noble mission of enlightening people, broadening their vision and discourage sectarian, communal and divisive trends. They should not resort to sensationalism and distortion of truth, incite sensitive people to take revenge against those who are their enemies or who act against their interests. It is pity that many news-papers fail to perform their duty towards the masses especially in this country where the unlettered many have an implicit belief in the printed word and tend to take as truth what they read or hear. In advanced countries, such as U.S.A. and Britain, the press and the TV is a great power. In India too, some papers hold an exalted position and are popular worldwide for their honest opinions.
The power of media is especially very great in all the democracies of the world. News-papers are said to make and break the governments, but they can perform this duty only by being the real mirrors of the society. They can mould public opinion only by their honest dealings. They cannot pressurize the public to go by their own views. Thus they can simply defame themselves and lose their mass popularity. Some national news-papers, the giants, as they can be called, enjoy a great deal of influence on governments and the people alike. They command ample resources and are greatly patronized by the masses. The people connected with these papers, especially the journalists, correspondents, cartoonists and columnists enjoy great respect and popularity among the masses. Their word has a big say in the echelons of power and business. These people gain this popularity because of their honest dealings with the situations in and outside and country. But this is not true with all such cases. The news-papers, the news-channels and other private forms of the media are usually owned or dominated by the big industrial houses and capitalist. Consequently the interest of the masses is often sacrificed at the altar of capitalism and business.
In the Constitution of India, Right to Freedom (Article 19-22) is a vital part of the Fundamental Right enshrined therein. The written word, or the Press is the essential forum of expression. A free Press is, therefore, an essential instrument of ensuring openness in society, as also for reforming it. In a society where overwhelming millions are mute, because of illiteracy and lack of interest, the responsibility of the media increases manifold and the access to a forum that reaches them must be viewed as a trust to be operated on their behalf and for their larger good. The media is, no doubt, only one of the instruments of change in the modern world society but nevertheless, it serves as an important source of information to different sections of the people and has far-reaching effect on government policies and plans. The press-men have a responsibility towards the common-man, as such; the press cannot be completely free. Even the greatest democrat cannot allow it. Liberty of thought may be complete, but the liberty of expressing that thought, is bound to some restriction, not only from outside but from within also---within your heart. There would obviously be chaos in the would if everybody were allowed to say or publish what he thought or felt. There is a very wise saying “your freedom ends where anyone else’s begins”, applies here also.  Freedom of expression should not be allowed to degenerate into freedom of abuse.
Freedom of Press is a sacred privilege, but it requires great tact and patience to exercise it properly. Man is generally governed by passions and prejudice and the media-man is no exception to it. In the world of shifting values today, people with influencing sense of character and honesty are things of rarity, so curbs on the activities of media are indispensable as no country can allow blasphemy and personal liberty. Avoidance of mischievous and malafide criticism of government and its agencies to source some of the personal ends is not justified. The political leaders or other persons at the helm, also not justified. The political leaders or other persons at the helm, also have their limitations and it is the duty of the media to look into the facts and intentions equally and closely too, to form an opinion to publicize, so that the people, at large, are not mislead and misgivings about the events are not publicized in a wrong direction.
The responsible media is the stronghold of the democratic set-up. Democracy is based on the mass-participation of the people in the affairs of government. The masses are to be kept well-informed about the developments going on, as a consequence of the policies of the government. The achievements and the failures of the governments in power are to determine its future continuance or a change. Thus the role of the Press and the Media comes in. it is the duty of the means of mass-communication that the masses are fully and honestly aware of the realities. It is here that bad Press and other media can do a lot of damage to the cause of the people as well as the government.

Problems of Urban Life

Modern urban life has produced entirely a new environment, a new standard of life and a quite changed circumstance with the new inputs of technology. It has created lots of new problems which were quite unknown to the people of yesterday. As the world today is changing rapidly, more rapidly than most of us can imagine or are at least prepared for. Till recently men lived in village communities, and their culture, mode of living food and social organizations were adjusted to their surroundings. Modern urban life has created new problems of adaptation. Small old cities expanded in their jurisdiction and accommodated vast surrounding areas. The glamour of urban areas attracted people from rural areas in large numbers. Comparatively inadequate development of villages pushed the unemployed people in large numbers to cities in search of work, students for better opportunities of education and businessman to expand their business and finding better markets of their goods. Unfortunately most modern cities gew haphazardly as the effects of living in huge cities were not fully anticipated and the social, economic and psychological consequences of industrialization were not fully considered; and the steps which should have been taken to bring about an adjustment between man and his new environment have not been forthcoming in ample measure.
Much has so far been said and written against urbanization. The critics of urban civilization regard it as a social decay. They deplore its artificiality, its sophistication, intellectualism and loss instinctive activity, its denial of family life and blood ties, its loss of vitality and the will to live manifested in the decline in birth rate and in the high rate of suicides. They also point to the growing evils of urbanization Juvenile delinquency, prostitution, addiction to alcohol and drugs of the most injurious kind, slums, crimes and suicides. To crown this all, the critics of urban life, point to the loss of moral values and deteriorating sense of brotherhood among the people living there. There is no biological or sociological evidence to support the theory of decay. Most of the evils to which the critics of urban civilization draw attention, are not inherent in it, but are the result of a lack of social planning and foresight and also the wide exposure to western culture as a result of improved communication links in the form of cable T.V. and easy access to the advanced life styles of westernization. 
Rapid urbanization has created a very large number of highly complex problems, particularly in underdeveloped or developing counties. The most noticeable evil associated with over-urbanization is marked deterioration in the environment of the cities and the appearance of slums. The cities in developing counties have become overcrowded as a result of migration of people from the countryside and small towns over decades and natural increase in population. As a result of unplanned industrialization, the employers in the cities are not bound by law to build horses and provide all civil facilities to their employees as a result, the workers who are not well-paid, are driven by necessity to living on footpath or in slums under most intolerable conditions as they along with petty tradesman is not able to pay high rents which a housing entrepreneur expects. In the new industrial towns which are springing up, there is not problem of slum clearance which is so acute in our big cities like Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi. Slums are a disgrace to the community. They are unfit for human habitation. All kinds of people learning their bread by dubious means--- beggars, prostitutes, pick-pockets and thieves, chronic drunkards, vagabonds, and the like come to live in slums. Since the poor peoples’ do not generally have any notions of hygienic and sanitary conditions of living, the slums, often single-room tenements degenerate into something even worse. They breed all kinds of epidemics.
Consequent upon industrialization in developing counties, urbanization, besides creating slums, has also denied to a large section of people even elementary civic amenities---pure drinking water, electricity, proper drainage system, hospitals and well-built and well-run schools and pucca roads. Over-crowding has become a serious problem as large additional population is bound to complicate matters. Good medical facilities, day-to-day requirements of life, proper schooling and the like, have become very expensive and only the upper crust of people are able to afford for them. The masses including the middle class are only able to maintain themselves upto the level of subsistence and the things of comfort have become things of luxury for them. The educated youth, in spite of having good education and professional knowledge cannot stand the competition and are usually an exploited lot at the hands of affluent industrialists and company owners.
Another vital problem created by urbanization is that of the pollution of environment Pollution is the direct outcome of fast urbanization. Unplanned expansion of urban areas has put crowds huddled together in areas where the roads cannot bear the load and the haphazard industrialization has put industrial units scattered inside residential colonies. All these things have increased pollution. The number of vehicles on roads is rapidly increasing, so are the sources of noise and water pollution. Thus, the urban people bear the brunt. Very few planned urban areas, where the highways are very wide and the roads run through green areas and the industial areas are quite away from the residential colonies and also strict rules and regulations are observed for development of new areas for residential colonies, the problem of pollution is not intense, the cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai are worst examples of pollution the atmosphere to the extent that human life is put to great risks. Man has learnt to turn deserts into fertile lands, harness the forces of nature for his benefit, add immensely to production in all spheres so that the rapidly growing population may be well-fed well-clothed, well-entertained and well-provided withal sorts of luxuries and comforts and overcome the gravitational pull of the earth and conquer space, but has not learnt to life in peace with nature and preserve the balance has not learnt to live in peace with nature and preserve the balance which has made life possible and given it such richness. The air is being polluted by all kinds of poisonous gases and fumes from being polluted by all kinds of poisonous gases and fumes from industrial plants and automobile exhausts. It is estimated that 60 per cent of the air pollution in American Cities, is cause by motor-cars. Scientists predict most Disastrous consequences for the human race if the atmosphere continues to be fouled. Chemical wastes contaminate rivers and seas and poison drinking water and fish. India has not yet reached that degree of industrialization which would pose a serious threat to the environment but he danger signals have appeared. This does not mean that we have to stop applying science and technology to production and remain content with old methods, but we have clearly to recognize the dangers inherent in unplanned industrialization and take sufficient measures to stop the increasing industries pollute the environment. how foolish it would be to rudely disturb the delicate balance which nature has struck to make life possible and support it.
The world is presently passing through a period of acute international anarchy. The big powers are piling up huge piles of thermonuclear weapons and other engineers of vast destruction. It is possible that the instinct of self-preservation prevail upon these suicidal tendencies and these weapons are destroyed, but the possibility cannot be ruled out that these dangerous weapons are used in consequence of some instant circumstance and the nations will have to face catastrophic consequences of their folly. The counties which are highly urbanized and which have millions of men, women and children living in cities are more valuable than those in which people live mostly in villages and small towns, where industrial production is highly decentralized. The defenses of a country are very much handicapped when the armed forces are to consider the safety of people living in metropolitan cities with high concentration of population and industry. The big stakes in war will have to be exchanged keeping in view the safety of the urban areas.
Keeping in view the circumstances that prevail in big cities in underdeveloped counties, along with further development of urban surrounding areas, some steps are necessary to be taken for the decentralization of urban areas. Since the main motive for migration to already thickly populated urban areas is economic, the most effective way to discourage them is to make the economy of the villages and small towns fully viable. The Government can undertake a massive program for rural development so that the economy of villages is fully vitalized. Improvement of Agriculture, setting up of small industrial units along with the facilities for good education, hospitals and recreation and full employment for villages and small  towns can be achieved with a full-fledged development plan in a matter of a fixed period of time as the populations does not exceed the facilities which nature has provided there. If all the resources, available in villages are tapped properly and in a phased manner, the thing which seems impossible can be achieved very soon. The surplus rural labor can be absorbed in villages themselves or in neighboring towns where there is no over-crowding and the civic amenities are ample. Mahatma Gandhi quite held that we should be able to make villages self-sufficient and autonomous as far as possible. The developing nations have fallen completely under the spell of western civilization and technology and mode of large-scale production through huge industries, forgetting the fact that they do not suit the developing economies with vast expanding population. The result is before us. The urban areas are madly expanding despite all hazards of urbanization and the rural masses continue to live in sub-standard, below poverty standards with very little or no hope of any ray of development reaching to them.
No-doubt, the village economy is undergoing rapid development and conditions are being created in which rural pursuits will become viable, but also so rapidly is population expanding and so readily are our well-to-do agriculturists taking to agricultural machines and electric power that there is little possibility of rural unemployment being reduced to any appreciable extent except through migration to towns and cities. Towns and cities are centers of trade and commerce. Factories employing thousands of works are set up in them. It is in cities and towns that courts and universities and colleges are established, films are produced, newspapers are published, radio stations are built, government offices employing thousands of men and women function, restaurant and hotels are started and thousands of persons cater to the tastes of men and women in fashion. Men of taste who patronize works of art, lawyers, doctors, teachers, artists and other intellectuals live in metropolitan or other big cities. Ambitious men determined to make their mark in life make towns and cities the seat of their activity. Migration from towns to villages is insignificant partly because those who are used to the amenities of urban life are reluctant, despite attractive government offers to induce educated classes to go back to villages, to settle in the induce educated classes to go back to village, to settle in the countryside where civic amenities and modes of entertainment are of a very limited character. Migrations to cities have been vastly a very limited character.  Migrations to cities have been vastly facilitated by the rapid means of transportation. Traders move from small towns to big cities because the urban people have greater purchasing capacity and consequently provide more opportunities purchasing capacity and consequently provide more opportunities for making big profits. Delhi is today the most densely populated city in the country because of the influx of refugees, large-scale expansion of central bureaucracy, the establishment of new factories, diversion of wholesale trade from neighbouring towns, and the fact that sis the seat of government and Parliament.
Thus the need for the government and municipal corporations becomes paramount to realize their responsibility to ease the situation prevailing in big cities. They cannot allow themselves to be overwhelmed by the magnitude of the problem involved. There is no warrant for the belief that urban life is unhealthy, unnatural and harmful, that the people in villages live longer, are free from ailments common among city folk and life more naturally. The fact that urbanization is accompanied by various evils and involves certain undesirable consequences down not establishes that they are inherent in it. It only emphasizes man’s inability to plan his life intelligently and create an environment congenial to him. The objection is not to urbanization but to indiscriminate expansion of city boundaries and overcrowding. Unfortunately, in underdeveloped counties, municipal corporations and town planners cannot raise enough money to satisfy all the requirements of expanding cities. The State cannot compulsorily acquire land under the slum dwellings and bulk healthy, well-built, spacious houses for the poor on subsidized rents. There need not be any legal or constitutional difficulties in the way of compulsory eviction of land, illegally occupied by elements. The urban areas should be places full of all the modern amenities including well-ventilated and well-built houses, parks and gardens, schools and hospitals, not only for the affluent few but for the poor as well, then only there will be an equitable distribution of nature’s bounty.

The Problems of Modern Youth

Unrest among youth has been a problem since time immemorial. It was so in the past and it shall be so in future as well, howsoever glamorous and glittering the social fabric might become and however secure and stable they might feel under the new dispensation. The young have never rested on their past laurels nor have they felt contented with their present possibilities. The chords of their impulse, instincts and intuitions have been always vocal and vibrant. No doubt the problems of youth in different parts of the world under different socio-political systems differ in contours and contents. But one thing is almost certain that the modern youth is up against problems, the like of which did not exist in the past. “”youth in turmoil”, “Unrest among youth”, “Youth in revolt”, “Angry young man”, ----these epithets are not just literary coinage or journalistic flourishes, but a vociferous voices of protest of vast segments of populations that have seen and suffered the all-round erosion of values and the wreckage of their dreams.

Having been influenced by the philosophies of “individualism” and “existentialism”, the urban youth is in state of defiance against the old order, whether that order comes from the “elderly generation” or the “power that be”. If they find themselves in a state of “alienation or estrangement” in the present set-up , the fault lies as much with their socio-economic milieu as with the education system. Deprived of the opportunity to develop intellectually, many suffer from the problem of subjective isolation and self-estrangement. Among red-tapism and bureaucratic control over the strings of both private and public sectors, the cream of the country finds itself uncared and un-solicited for. It is under this trying and turbulent circumstance that the best brain of the country starts draining out. This country does not seem to provide for the youth what they wish for or what they are capable for. They are seen exploited here and not given their due inspire of their putting in the best efforts. This treatment starts with the educational institutions, where the teachers and the curriculum both seem to him quite contrary to his tastes and aptitudes and his enthusiasm seems to get blunted in the start of his career and he feels alienated from the world around him. Once out of college he feels the whole world not ready to accept him and he starts to become rebellions in character. His parents start complaining about his behavior and during this crucial stage he is prone to some bad habits, like smoking, drugs etc. Many youth at this juncture seek market for their abilities and capacities but they find, their capacities least respected in the market. Those who succeed in finding jobs or some means of subsistence in this country do not find life a sweet-song or a care-free comfort. A host of problems keep staring them in their faces-inadequate, houses, transport and sewerage, poor medical and recreational facilities, neurotic noise pollution, shortages, dust and smoke, crimes and ever-expanding slums and what not. The most creative and colorful period of their lives is consumed and swallowed by activities most profane and abject in the ever exploding towns and cities. The bosses for whom they work are their targets completed, which is always out of their roach. They want to get rid of this servitude and start something of their own to make use of their talents independently but the constraints of finances and other problems bar the way and to keep the ball rolling, and wishing for a divine opportunity to cross his way, they continue with their present unfriendly job merely to make their tow ends meet.

If T.S. Eliot’s prufrock measured his life by counting the sips of coffee cups, the modern youth in India measures his life by standing in queues, jostling and pushing in buses and finally by removing the grey hair from his head. His problems are social, economic and psycho-emotive but there is none around who can share his sad and solitary existence. Compounded with his lonely state of life, the urban youth have remained immune to the profundity of spiritual heritage of the land, mysticism, the philosophy of Vedas and their formative years in schools, colleges and universities. Fed on scientific data and attuned to economic, political and social theories, the Vitim finds himself rudderless and utterly hapless when caught in the tempests of some personal crisis or jolted by some inexplicable tragedy. Even the telecast of two great epics on the television has failed to change his outlook because the symbolic and spiritual import of these epics have no penetrated through the thick layers of ‘rationalism’, ‘materialism,’ ’nihilism’, etc. Which like crumbs; he picks up from here and there and then flourishes them as props of his pseudo-scholarship.
Difference in class and social background contribute to the disparities among youth. It leads to the accumulation of tensions, which have an explosive potential. Youths belonging to the lower class of society, after attaining good academic and technical efficiency became angrier as the join the army of job-seekers and no more prepared to adapt the level  of their aspirations are not fulfilled. They want to earn the fruits of their toil they have put in to get their degrees through educational and technical institutions. They do not find people with whom they want to work, as friendly as they expect, so they turn rebellions to their society and their anger finds outlet through a behaviors which turn to be anti-social, at times.

The rural youth who comes to towns and cities in large numbers to seek employment after completing their courses of study seem themselves freed from the cramping controls of traditional institutions of rural life. The freedom gained and the energy released thereby does not find satisfying outlet, in the urban areas where they have to of adjustment in cities, in the case of language, manners, speech in the first instance and subsequently inadequate foods and residential arrangements. They feel suffocated in the city crowds and pollution and are unable to accommodate with the routines and life-style of the town. They cannot withstand the glamour of the urban areas and face psychological tension and insecurity generated by the more competitive, individualistic and impersonal environment which result in their inhibited socialisation. It has a direct impact on their prospects of employment and the become a soft target for the greedy employers of the city who take an advantage of their simplicity and exploit them for their personal gains. Many of them fall into the traps of some anti-social elements, who take them very fat into their network of evil-doing where from they do not find any route of escape and their life and career is spoiled. Despite their outnumbering the urban youth, opportunities available to the rural lot are qualitatively different. Here the inequalities that divide the educated and somewhat affluent urban and the unlettered and the underprivileged rural people, come in the way and the realities are denied opportunities as compared the urbanities. The condition of the rural areas has been deteriorating for lack of development there, and the development of real India which is in villages, does not seem to be on the agenda of development agencies, as such, the number of job-seekers, both educated and uneducated, goes on increasing day by day and their march towards cities and towns also increases day by day. Therefore, the deteriorating economic conditions of the villages and the more extensive development-cum-job opportunities of cities is the primary cause of youth migrating from the countryside to the slums and squalor of cities.

This influx of rural people to the urban areas signifies kind of “brain drain” towards the cities and calls for an urgent and immediate program for rural resource development of these areas so that the rot is halted and the problems that follow un-planned and haphazard urbanisation are put under check.
Independence was once an inspiring social ideal and the struggle for independence brought to the free ground some of the finest qualities of the Indian youth. The nationalist struggle was undoubtedly associated with a moral ferment, it did throw up a leadership which had strong bonds with the people and which rose to the great heights of moral courage and dedication. In the person of Gandhi, India did throw up a leader who became a symbol of Indian awakening. But Indian leadership in the period following independence has not been able to transform the challenge of national development into such an overpowering cause; the program of planned development has not caught the imagination of the youth nor has it released spiritual ferment and energy to any appreciable extent. The fundamental causes of this weakness are socio-political they lie in the ambivalent attitude of the leadership’ failure to inspire the youth with their ideal thinking and action has made the Indian youth either cynics or snobs, unable to cope with the day to day problems and predicaments.
One of the big failures of the Indian models of development and the State has been an inability to realize that we are dealing with a very different kind of society comprising many linguistic and ethnic groups craving for recognition of their rights to preserve their ethnic identity and linguistic entity. Having been exploited and neglected for long, the young blood among these groups took up the cause of their communities and thus came in direct conflict and confrontation with the state authority. In recent times, many movements led by the youth, have been going on in different parts of the country and the only problem that the youth have highlighted is their assertion and reiteration that their separate identity and cultural entity be respected and restored back to its pristine glory and grandeur. The failure in doing this, alongside the deliberate provocations coming from interested quarters has resulted in the growth of both communal conflicts and sub-national assertions and movements that are greatly straining the authority and legitimacy of the Indian State.
In the West, the dilemma of the modern youth is born out of factors that are alien to the youth in the developing countries. If property, ignorance and unemployment are our curses, affluence and permissiveness are the bane of their homes, most of which are shattered as well as broken. The cult of Hippism, Drug addiction, violence, aimless murders etc. proves beyond doubt that mere material prosperity is not the end of all problems. The largest number of psychologists and psychiatrists flourishing in America point to the widespread enigma of neurosis-cum-mental sickness most prevalent among the youth there. In the countries of  Eastern Europe, the problems of youth are that of transition from a “Closed Society” to the “Open One”.
All said and done, modern youth, particularly Indian youth, can again contribute towards a big push to Indians growth and progress. Thinking and dynamic elements among the youth will have to organise themselves for serious self-education before they can organise the participation of the youth in this vital, national task.

Value Added Tax

The origin of Value Added Tax (VAT) can be traced as far back as the writings of E Von Siemens, who proposed it in 1918 as a substitute for the then newly established German turnover tax. Since then, numerous economists have examined the tax in great contexts. Also, various committees have examined the tax in great details. However for its rejuvenation, the tax owes much to Maurice Faure and Carl Shop. The recent evolutions of VAT can be considered as the most important fiscal innovation of the present century.

VAT was first introduced in France 1954. With the imposition of Taxes Value Adoptee, France becomes the first European country to implement VAT on an extensive scale. It was not, however, at first a complete system of VAT, since it applied only to transactions entered into by manufacture and wholesalers.

What is VAT?

The Value Added Tax is similar to the national sales tax. However, instead of implementing one tax of certain percentage of the time of retail sale, there is a smaller tax, proposed at 5 % added each time the product is resold or when value has been added. For example a tax is added when a product is passed from a manufacture to wholesaler, and again from the wholesaler to the retailer or it is a multi-stage sale tax levied as a proportion of the value added (i.e., sales minus purchases which is equivalent to wages plus profits). It is a sales tax collected by the government (of the state in which the final consumer is located)---- which is the government of destination state on consumer expenditure.

Over 120 countries worldwide have introduced VAT over the past three decade and India is amongst the last few to introduce it. India already has a system of sales tax collection wherein the tax is collected at one point (first/last) from the transactions involving the sale of goods. VAT would, however, be collected in stages (installments) from one stage or another. The mechanism of VAT is such that, for from one stage to another. The mechanism of VAT is such that, for goods that are imported and consumed in a particular state, the first seller pays the first point, and the next seller pays the tax only on the value-addition done--- loading to a total tax burden exactly equal to the last point tax.

Why is VAT Necessary?

India, particularly the trading community, has believed in accepting and adopting loopholes in any system administered by the state or the centre. If a well-administered system comes in, it will close avenues for traders and businessmen to evade paying taxes. They will also be compelled to keep proper records of their sales and purchase. Many sections hold the view that the trading community has been amongst the biggest offenders when it comes to evading taxes. 

Under the VAT system, no exemption will be given and a tax will be levied at each stage of manufacture of a product. At each state of Value addition, the tax levied on the inputs can be claimed back from the tax authorities. At a macro level, there are two issues which make the introductions of 

VAT critical in India.

1. Industry watcher say that the VAT system, if enforced properly, will from 
    Part of the fiscal consolidation strategy for the country. It could, in fact, 
    help address the fiscal deficit problem and the revenues estimated to be 
    collected could actually mean lowering of the fiscal deficit burden for the 

2. The International Monetary Fund, in its semiannual world economic 
    outlook released on April 9, 2004 expressed its concern over India’s large 
    fiscal deficit at 10 per cent of the GDP. Further any globally accepted tax 
    administrative system, will only help India Integrate better in the WTO 
This is one of the most radical reforms to be proposed for the Indian economy, could finally become a reality after four years of political and economic debate, yet, the biggest hurdle before the government is not making India’s common market’ through a uniform sales tax structure, but removing a complicated tax structure that also allowed for fraudulent practices. The decision to introduce VAT was publicly discussed first at a conference of State. Chief Ministers and Finance Ministers in November, 1999. At that time, the political instability and lack of initiative pushed this reform to the back burner.
The Global experience with regard to VAT was that it promoted efficiency in production by allowing tax credit cascading for inputs and reducing the impact of multiple levies. In the process, it is not only the consumer but also the producer who benefits. Moreover, the government does not lose revenue since the lowering of tax rates is more than offset by increased economic activity.
Why Government proposes to Impose VAT?
Dr. Manmohan Singh, the then Union Finance Minister, in his Budget speech for the year 1994-95 introduced the new concept of service tax and stated that “there is no sound reason for exempting services from taxation, therefore. I propose to make a modest effort in this direction by imposing a tax on services of telephones, non-life insurance and stock brokers”.
Service tax had been levied on the recommendations made in early 1990s by the tax reforms committee headed by Dr. Raja Chelliah. The Committee pointed out that the indirect taxes at the central lever should be broadly neutral in relevation to production and consumption of goods and should, in course of time cover commodities and series. The committee felt that the country should move towards full-fledged Value Added Tax (VAT) system covering services and commodities. Service tax must a part of VAT at the central level. It envisaged that at the central system a tax could be levied on services that enter into the productive process. The committee emphasized the importance of moving towards VAT, for making the system of indirect taxation broadly revenue neutral in relation to production and consumption and widening the tax base by covering exempted commodities. It is felt that VAT mechanism would mitigate the burden of service tax and take care of the cascading effect on the ultimate customers. VAT aims to cut multiple layers of state and federal taxes and impose uniform tax rates across the country. Over 120 countries which have adopted VAT have seen their revenue increase. Indian needs more revenue to plug its deficit.
Retail Community Protest
Small businessman and traders are likely to be badly hit by the new system as many of them have used loopholes in the current system to avoid paying taxes. A section of the retail community went on strike, stating that some anomalies linked to the proposed VAT system have not been addressed. A High Power Committee including Senior State Finance Ministers, had pointed out the anomaly to the government. However, the centre continues to ignore the suggestion and this makes the situation more difficult. The government is looking at the while issue through a single dimension (of collecting revenues). The retail community will be hit by the multipoint VAT system.
No Extra Paperwork for Retailers
There are sections of VAT system which ensure lesser paperwork for the retailer community. There will be no local statutory forms under VAT. The existing sales tax system requires dealers to maintain account by sales and purchase, and the VAT system also requires maintenance of only such accounts. Further, the Central Sales Tax Act would be amended and there would be a single-page form common for local and central Acts. The return would be required to be filed quarterly, as is being done currently.

Some Points against VAT

The state government’s concerns may be seen as political lobbying. Since large section of the trading community has protested against VAT, both the BJP and Congress have not made any categorical statement for or against VAT. Instead, they have tried to befriend the trading community. Each party sings a different tune in different states in this matter. It would also mean less tax evasion and more earning for the states. But no political party can afford to ignore the agitating trading community, which becomes a vexed issue for the political parties.

The power to enhance the rate of tax will rest with the Finance Department of the state. The industry feels that this will be largely misused and rates could be increased at the wishes of the bureaucrats, ignoring the stipulations. 
The bureaucracy will have full control over every dealer and trader, and will have the authority to inspect not only the books of accounts, but verify cash or stock too. This is absurd, feels the industry.
The department will have the power to attach provisionally any money which is due or which may become due into the course of any inquiry, inspection or proceeding.
The revocation of such an attachment is possible only after the submission of a back guarantee. Though it is provided such an attachment will cease to have effect after the expiry of one year, the commissioner has the power to extend this period up to two years.
Getting refund of the VAT would be a cumbersome procedure.
There will be no set-off on interstate sale.
The new VAT provisions give power to the authorities to create check and balance at their discretions.
No redressed system or recheck.

(i) A 5 % tax is levied at each stage of production of goods. 
(ii) The total tax is built into the cost of goods.
(iii) Exports are not taxed.
(iv) All imports are taxed.
(v) It allows multiple rates and exemption of goods from other 
(vi) This form of tax is used by many other industrialized countries 

(i) It would be similar to the National Sales Tax, but it would be more 
complicated to administer and collect.
(ii) It would also tax goods and medicine as does the national sales 

The experience from various practices adopted by different countries couple with principle of taxation applicable to VAT suggest two-fold lessons for the non VAT countries in general and such developing countries in particular.
First, it proclaims the sum of choice such as types of VAT, depends upon the superiority of a particular choice. Hence most of the VAT countries have adopted a particular type (such as consumption variant) only. 
Secondly, some of the issues connected with the past experience of country concerned are extremely important to decide the issues related of the administration of VAT.

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